GLOSSARY

Applet - A small programme that can only be executed from within another application. Applets are frequently embedded in HTML.

Application Sharing - a feature that allows two or more people to view and/or work together on the same application from one remote system. Users can input information and control the application using the keyboard and mouse. The user who initiated the application can lock out other users from altering the document so that the feature becomes more of a live demonstration tool.

Audio Bridge - Equipment that mixes multiple audio inputs and feeds back composite audio to each station after removing the individual station's input. This equipment may also be called a mix-minus audio system.

Bandwidth - Bandwidth is defined as the transmission capacity of an electronic line normally measured in bits or bytes per second (bps).

Bridge - A device that connects two networks or two segments of a network together.

Broadband - High-speed internet access using ADSL (asymmetric digital service/subscriber lines) or cable modems, or other methods of electronic delivery. These connections allow users to view video and/or listen to audio at relatively high quality and download files quickly.

Collaboration - The simultaneous viewing and modification of a shared document or computer application. Also referred to as document conferencing.

Compression - Any of several techniques that reduce the number of bits required to represent information in data transmission or storage. It can be used to squeeze more information in a given space or bandwidth (eg sending several TV channels in the space previously occupied by one), or to send the same information more quickly.

Data conferencing - (a.k.a. web conferencing) allows a group of people to work, simultaneously, in real time, creating any number of electronically produced documents: reports, plans, proposals, spreadsheets, presentations. Facilitated data conferencing makes it all that much more fun and more productive.

Digitize - The process of translating data into a digital format.

DSL, aDSL and sDSL (Digital Subscriber Line, Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line and Synchronous Digital Subscriber Line) - A connection to the Internet provided by telephone companies using telephone lines at relatively high speed data connections. This is a permanent connection to the Internet (does not require you to "dial- up" every time to connect) and is considered to be a Broadband or High Bandwidth connection.

E-conferencing - E-conferencing refers to innovative technologies that allow people to communicate or "conference" over the Internet. Audio conferencing, video conferencing, collaborative conferencing, and web conferencing are all components of e-conferencing.

Firewall - A system designed to prevent unauthorized users from accessing information on a network. The system can involve software, hardware, or both. Firewalls are sometimes configured to block the types of services required to deliver a live web event to a person's computer, but this can be changed without a security risk if a company desires.

H.320 standard - A widely-used video compression standard that allows a wide variety of videoconferencing systems to communicate on a Wide Area Network (WAN), typically utilizing ISDN lines.

H.323 standard - A cornerstone technology for the transmission of real-time audio, video, and data communications over packet-based networks. It specifies the components, protocols, and procedures providing multimedia communication over packet-based networks (see Figure 1). Packet-based networks include IP–based (including the Internet) or Internet packet exchange (IPX)–based local-area networks (LANs), enterprise networks (ENs), metropolitan-area networks (MANs), and wide-area networks (WANs). H.323 can be applied in a variety of mechanisms—audio only (IP telephony); audio and video (videotelephony); audio and data; and audio, video and data. H.323 can also be applied to multipoint-multimedia communications. H.323 provides myriad services and, therefore, can be applied in a wide variety of areas—consumer, business, and entertainment applications.

Internet - A global system of interconnected networks allowing users to exchange information through their computers.

Intranet - A separate organisational network based on the same protocol as the Internet (TCP/IP) that is only accessible to internal users. Unauthorized users may be prevented from accessing an intranet by a firewall.

Java - An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java is frequently used to create small applications (Java applets) for users to download and view with a Java-enabled browser. Java is at the core of many webconferencing systems, including PlaceWare.

Modem - A device for connecting a computer or other device (eg a set-top box) to a network (usually a phone line). The modem converts the digital information that a computer uses into audio signals which can be sent along a phone line.

Mbps - Megabits per second. A unit speed of measurement. 1 Million bits per second.

Multicast - The transmission (using audio or video streaming) of information from one to many endpoints.

Multipoint - A video conference between more than two sites.

On-demand - The opposite of a live web event. Most live web events are recorded and made available to play 'on demand'. In the academic world, on-demand is sometimes referred to as "asynchronous".

Plug-in - A software module that adds to or modifies the features of a larger application, usually a web browser.

Real time collaboration - The ability for a group of people to simultaneously share and edit documents across the Internet, as well as have the ability to transmit audio and video in addition to documents.

Remote Facilitator - An online facilitator who understands a group of executives and is trained to help keep meetings short, sweet, positive and productive.

Scalability - Able to accommodate a variety of needs. Able to adjust to the increased demands of a hardware or software system.

Standards - A universal format that allows video systems of differing manufacturers to communicate with each other. All video systems on a conference running standards must be able to support standards. Also referred to as H.320, H.261 and Link 64E (commonly referred to as the px64 standard).

Streaming media - A technology developed to compress and transfer video or audio data through a computer in such a way that the file can start to play while it is downloading. This makes it possible to send live programming over the Net.

Synchronous - An academic term for a live web event that a group of people attend at the same time.

Teleconference - Business communication tool that allows a group of people to call into a shared phone line. A web conference can be added to a teleconference for visuals and interactive elements.

Transcription - A service that provides a written, scripted document of a conference for a client. This can be verbatim for legal purposes or in a summary format for future reference and review.

Video Conferencing - Communication across distant locations with video and audio contact that may also include graphics and data exchange.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - The technology that allows users to exchange voice data over an Internet connection through their computers.

Web conferencing - A term that describes the industry forming around the creation of virtual events. This industry is a convergence of phone and web technology developed to provide cost-effective interactive communication channels for individuals and businesses.

Webcast - A presentation in which a live event is recorded and streamed (broadcasted) over the Internet, or archived for viewing at a later time.

White boarding - A term used to describe the placement of shared documents on an on-screen whiteboard. Desktop videoconferencing software includes "snapshot" tools that enable one to capture entire windows or portions of windows and place them on the whiteboard. A user can also use familiar Windows operations (cut and paste) to put snapshots on the whiteboard. One works with familiar tools to mark up the electronic whiteboard similar to a traditional wall-mounted board.

Wide Area Network (WAN) - A geographically dispersed network that connects two or more local area networks (LANs).